Instructions to Authors

    Usually, the Manuscripts are categorised in to following groups based on the criteria noted below. The author(s) are motivated to request a specific classification upon submitting. However, the Editor and the Managing Editor reserves the right to catalogue the manuscript as they see fit, and it should be understood by the authors that this process is biased to some proportion.


    • Written by the NorCal Editors, Associate Editors, or Invited Guest Editors on a variety of subjects of research interests to the Journal Readers lesser than or equal to one page.

    Letter to the Editor

    • Submitted by the Reader
    • Supports, refuses, or adds relevant information related to a previously published article
    • Authors correcting their own work or responding to a critique of their article by a reader(s)
    • Abstract is not needed
    • The letter is restricted to divide into segments.


    • Authors suggestion (scope is open to areas beyond science/technology)
    • Reviewers recommendation
    • Represents the “perspective” or “opinion” or “hypothesis” of the author(s)
    • Amount of original data is minimal, but corroborative literature data encouraged
    • Format: Does not follow the outline of Introduction, Materials/Methods, Discussion/Conclusions, and References


    • Topic is relatively broad in scope
    • Review article should be on topic which is of interest to a wide readership.
    • Review articles should have a comprehensive coverage of a topic in clear and lucid language with representative figures and images.
    • Represents an overview of published information and data from many authors and sources
    • Does not contain original data (to any great extent)
    • Abstract and keywords are must
    • Usually includes a large number of references


    • Follows the outline of Introduction, Materials/Methods, Discussion/Conclusions, and References
    • Supported by significant and relevant amount of data
    • Data should have been developed by the author(s)
    • Conclusions are based primarily on the data presented and compared to the published literature

    Technology/Application (or Case Studies)

    • Describes a particular technology or application
    • Surgical techniques, new instruments, technical innovations
    • Contains original data generated in the process of developing the technology or in support of the application
    • Supported by a significant amount of data
    • May follow the outline of Introduction, Materials/Methods, Discussion/Conclusions, and References
    • Does the article impress upon the readers a new process/ or technology?
    • Case Studies- detailed description with data of the specific implementation of an application or the solution to a given practical problem

    Case Series

    • The Case Series section of Norcal Publishers reports a series of 2-6 similar cases.
    • The cases should be unusual and give unique perspective on disease presentation, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment and treatment side effects.
    • The cases should address a challenging diagnostic and/or therapeutic problem with possible solutions to help and treatment side effects.
    • The case should address a challenging diagnostic and/or therapeutic problem with possible solutions to help clinicians in managing these cases much more effectively.
    • Case series must be accompanied with comprehensive review of literature.

    Case Reports

    • Case Reports must provide an original description of previously unreported entity or report new presentation of a known disease or a new perspective of case which poses a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge.
    • Case Reports should include a comprehensive review of similar cases and state the differences between present case and previous cases.
    • Case reports should be accompanied by clinical, radiological and pathologic images.

    Clinical Images

    • Clinical Images section includes clinical images, diagnostic or investigative images especially images in radiology, endoscopy, pathology and cytopathology.
    • The images should be accompanied by brief history and case discussion followed by conclusion.
    • Abstract is not required.
    • The Clinical Images will undergo peer review similar to other articles.

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